American Physical Society Uses 15 Nextbigfuture Articles to Track Date Slippage of Fusion

American Physical Society Uses 15 Nextbigfuture Articles to Track Date Slippage of Fusion

Brian Wang |
October 14, 2019 |

Daniel L. Jassby is retired researcher from the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab and he wrote an article about Voodoo Fusion for the American Physical Society. It has 15 citations of Nextbigfuture articles to track the slippage in promised dates for nuclear fusion projects.

Daniel noted that Nextbigfuture tracks all of the date claims and progress on nuclear fusion companies and nuclear fusion projects. Nextbigfuture also tracks molten salt companies and other nuclear projects.

Highlights

* All Nuclear fusion projects have missed deadlines and are very far from generating commercial power unless there are multiple breakthroughs


* IF there was a money scarcity problem and we had to fund only advanced nuclear energy projects that would not less delays and technical risks, then I would choose to fund the molten salt nuclear fission projects.


* IF venture funds or startups wish to have a due diligence report created, then I can research and create a lengthy and thorough analysis of the viability of the technical and business plans of a nuclear project or other technology projects. Due diligence reports vary in cost based on the scope of the diligence.


* If money was scarce and we wanted a nuclear reactor design where smaller versions have safely generated power for decades and should be safer and should generate energy at nearly 1 cent per kwh (although as heat) then the deep pool nuclear reactors would be the choice. China is developing the first of kinds units for deep pool reactors and this would replace the usage of a lot of coal for heating cities. A complete conversion to heat generation from deep pool reactors could displace 500 million tons of coal per year.


* Money is not scarce. Venture capital and equity capital can take a gamble on many different energy projects.


* Government money is wasted in many ways. The $4 trillion of federal US funds each year could deliver the same services for half of the budget or less. It is less of a societal problem that PHDs and engineers work on multi-billion projects that will fail and have useless objectives, than the fact that smart people are missing the opportunity to advance real solutions.


* Daniel Jassby used my links and articles to track nuclear fusion projects. I did the work that he wanted and needed for his article. He then chose to insult me personally. He did not just thank me for spending the time over 14 years to constantly track nuclear fusion and all major energy projects. He chose to insult me because I did not filter or include project metrics with each of my nuclear fusion articles.

Metrics for Tracking Nuclear Fusion

There are project metrics from 2016 that were published in 2017 by LPP Fusion.

Nextbigfuture has noted the comparison of different nuclear fusion projects with different metrics in the past. If Daniel was going to cite over a dozen of my articles, then he could have contacted me for the comparison of projects or used the contact form on the connection and I would have told him what I thought of the different projects and companies.

One sketchy way to track the predicted dates for each player’s commercial power plant is to review the articles issued periodically by Brian Wang on nextbigfuture.com. For the last dozen years, Wang has quoted uncritically the rash predictions of future accomplishments with dates furnished by project promoters. Wang treats all projects and unjustified claims seriously, but you, dear reader, will merely take note of the dates promised for commercial fusion reactors.

In general, I do not slam projects and companies. Especially, if I am reviewing what they hope to achieve. I would have to write three to four times as many articles with three articles criticizing projects and companies for every article describing what some company is attempting to achieve.

All of the nuclear fusion companies and projects that have been around long enough have slipped dates and target deadlines. ITER the big Tokamak project is the worst offender in terms of slipped dates. ITER also confuses people in the press releases about the different kinds of breakeven.

A tokamak nuclear fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO) will not arrive before 2050. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed for DEMO reactors. DEMO reactors are after ITER. DEMO’s would show that controlled nuclear fusion can generate net electrical power and mark the final step before the construction of a commercial fusion power plant. This would represent the next stage after ITER, the World’s largest fusion experiment underway, which is expected to demonstrate by the late 2030s that fusion can be used to generate net energy, i.e. produce more energy than supplied to it to feed the reactor. ITER is overpriced and very late. ITER began in 1985 as a Reagan–Gorbachev initiative with the equal participation of the Soviet Union, the European Atomic Energy Community, the United States, and Japan through the 1988–1998 initial design phases.

ITER Tokamak Timeline

1985 ITER project starts


2039 maybe net energy [for the plasma] is produced by ITER for 500 seconds


ITER lists its goals as ITER is designed for much higher fusion power gain, or Q greater than 10. For 50 MW of injected heating power it will produce 500 MW of fusion power for long pulses of 400 to 600 seconds. ITER will not capture the power it produces as electricity, but as the first of all fusion experiments in history to produce net energy. In a rollover, there is a definition of net energy. Net energy refers to the energy to heat the plasma and the energy in heat from the plasma.

2050s the first DEMO pre-commercial demonstrations begin operating


2085 maybe some giant and expensive commercial tokamaks begin operation, but would not be cheaper than current nuclear fission reactors

Nextbigfuture has noted the delays in promised commercialization of nuclear fusion. In 2018 and at other updates articles, Nextbigfuture noted that General Fusion and other companies missed their dates. When new dates are given, Nextbigfuture frequently notes the slippage from the prior date.

In 1998, Roy Bickerton gave an introductory on the ‘History of the approach to ignition’. His 1998 predictions for the future was for ITER operational in 2005, and DEMO in 2025. ITER will be at least 20 years late and DEMO will likely be 30 years late. I believe ITER will be 25-35 years late if it gets completed. I am sure Daniel Jassby knew this history. Daniel chose to only slam the non-Tokamaks for missing target dates.

Daniel Jassby notes the problems of the non-Tokamak nuclear fusion companies and focuses on the neutron production. Daniel ignores the decades of delays in the ITER Tokamak project. I do not claim that Daniel Jassby is ignorant. I claim that he is biased and rude.

ITER has had massive delays.

The expected cost of ITER has risen from $5 billion USD to $20 billion USD, and the timeline for operation at full power was moved from the original estimate of 2016 to 2027. However, the schedule for deuterium and tritium experiments would be in 2035 if things started to go right. They will not be able to complete the deuterium and tritium experiments in 2035 those will go on until 2040 at least. ITER publicizes the 2025 date of first plasma but not the uncertainty of funding and sacrificing of post plasma timeline. The real fusion experiments will be in 2035-2040 and hope to reach 20 minutes of operation. ITER talks about 50 megawatts in 500 MW out but the 50 MW in is for power directly to the heat the hydrogen and the out is heat. It is not electricity input to electricity output.

ITER and many fusion companies and project mislead people into thinking that plasma breakeven is power plant breakeven. Those can be differences of 100 times.

Nextbigfuture has tracked the new Tokamak startups. Commonwealth Fusion systems is targeting 2033 for commercial nuclear fusion.

SOURCES- LPP Fusion, Many Nuclear fusion projects, APS article, Daniel Jassby


Written By Brian Wang, Nextbigfuture.com

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$1000 Honda Gasoline Inverter Generator is My Best Option for Multi-Day Blackouts

I am currently living in a zone with regular multi-day power outages in California. I have already experienced three multi-day power outages in the last month and will likely have another one later this week. Any time there are winds with gusts over 30-45 mph in the napa area and into the east bay of the San Francisco bay area then PG&E will cut power because their equipment is dangerous.

I have determined that the best option for me is to get a Honda EU2200 generator. One gallon of gasoline can operate it at about 400-watt power for 8 hours. This is about $6-8 per day for fairly robust blackout back up operations.

A roughly one thousand dollar inverter generator like the Honda 2200 can power refrigerators, some lights, laptops and wifi during multi-day power outages.

This generator has powered a friend’s house that has two refrigerators, lights and laptops. They used an extension cord with surge protection to safely operate their laptops.

There are backup lithium batteries for camping or for UPS that can be used for powering sensitive electronics. The generator could recharge the larger battery to maintain operation of electronics without any surge worries.

Ice and dry ice could work but is not logistically practical and more of hassle. Also, dry ice would cost $25-50 per day. There is also not enough supplies of ice and dry ice at stores during such a wide power outage.

There are natural gas generators that can be installed to supply power for your entire house. They cost in the $2500 to $5000 range but also need professional installation.

The full house standby generator means that there is no worries about also powering air conditioning, heaters, washing machines and clothes washing. The cost would be about three times less than the gasoline generators.

Most batteries for solar power will run out of power under heavy load in about 8-20 hours. A larger battery in an electric vehicle could last 1-4 days and could be driven and recharged in areas without power outages. However, Tesla do not have the 120-volt inverters for Vehicles to Grid (V2G) power supplies. Using the Tesla in this way would currently void the battery warranty. The Nissan Leaf has V2G systems.

California Energy Utility and Forest Mismanagement

Here is a summary of the California Energy, Fire and Forest situation.

There are over 130 million dead trees lying around in California forests. Dead trees are easy fuel for big forest fires. Only about 1 million per year are removed. There are massive limitations around logging and cutting in California. Other states (Texas, Colorado, Florida, Wyoming) can have comparable amounts of forests but they have not allowed their forests to become such fire problems. British Columbia, Canada (BC) has a lot of forests and they have far better forest management. BC had some fire problems because of a disease, that killed a lot of trees, but if there are fire breaks, fuel breaks, intelligent logging and proper tree density then things are not so difficult to control.

There has been the claim that this California problem is because of global climate change. However, every other state, province and country with forests do not have the degree of grid causes power fires and mass blackout management.

There are well-known metrics from one hundred years of forest management around how many trees per acre is safe and how to make mile-wide fuel breaks. Controlled burns are needed to clear out the fuel breaks and they need to be maintained before fire season.

Even after $30 billion in fire damage in the prior two years, 80+ deaths and more fire damage this year and the multi-billion power outages, there is still strong opposition to “radical tree trimming”.

PG&E the Northern California utility has allowed its 106,681 circuit miles of electric distribution lines and 18,466 circuit miles of interconnected transmission lines to end up in a poorly maintained and dangerous condition. This is the same company that harmed the residents of Hinkley, California in the based upon reality Julia Roberts movie Erin Brockovich.

PG&E faces consequences for violating their probation from the 2010 San Bruno Gas Explosion. In January 2019, the nation’s largest utility filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy because it faces at least $30 billion in potential damages from lawsuits over the catastrophic wildfires in California in 2017 and 2018 that killed scores of people and destroyed thousands of homes.

PG&E was convicted of five felony counts of pipeline safety violations that led to the 2010 San Bruno Gas Explosion and one felony count of obstruction of justice for lying to officials.

PG&E first filed for Chapter 11 reorganization bankruptcy on April 6, 2001. The company said that this was due to their energy costs rising by more than $300 million a month without reimbursement. PG&E said they were around $9 billion in debt.

The Hinkley contamination occurred between 1952-1966, however, PG&E did not report the contamination to the local water board until years later. After examining their practices, PG&E reported it contaminated the water supply with chromium-6, which is one form of the metallic element chromium.

Nearly 650 people affected by the contamination sued PG&E with the legal aid of Erin Brockovich. The company settled for $333 million.

In 1994, PG&E was convicted of 739 counts of criminal negligence for failing to trim trees near its power lines. The untrimmed trees were said to be the main reason for the Trauner Fire.

PGE caused a fire in 2003. The fire caused a power outage to more than 100,000 customers throughout San Francisco on one of the busiest holiday shopping days.

In 1999, a fire burned nearly 12,000 acres of the Tahoe and Plumas National Forests over 11 days. The fire was blamed on PG&E’s poor vegetation management and inspection programs.

There were over 6 smaller incidents from 2004 to 2015.

PG&E systems are dangerous but fire management by mass blackout is an incredibly bad plan. PG&E likely caused the Kincade fire. They have likely caused dozens of other fires. A tennis club and three houses burned because of downed power pole.

By 7 a.m. Tuesday, the Kincade Fire has grown to 75,415 acres, Cal Fire said on Twitter. The fire was 15% contained. The Kincade has destroyed 124 structures, the agency said, 57 of which were residential homes. Twenty-three others were damaged, and more than 90,000 were at risk. Over 200,000 people were evacuated because of the risk that the fire could rapidly sweep through urban areas.

There needs to be micro-gridding to reduce the range of different blackouts. Power lines need to be buried in many areas. The electric systems need different kinds of phasors and inverters and other safety and control equipment.

San Diego’s utility had addressed their own fire issue starting in 2010 and they are 60% remediated. PG&E has had a significant and obvious fire, electrical and forest problem since 1994 and 1999.

Today, Pacific Gas & Electric just warned could conduct its third power cut in less than a week; nearly 4 million people could be in the dark.

SOURCES – ABC News, Wikipedia, Amazon Home Depot, Personal Research


Written By Brian Wang, Nextbigfuture.com

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Modern Tech To Tap $13 Billion In Ancient Roman Gold

The second-biggest gold mine in Europe could be about to make investors rich.

It’s a story that began over 2,000 years ago when the Romans dug up $16.8 billion in gold in Romania…

Using only hammers and buckets.

But now, a little company with a big dream is coming to unearth the rest.

Using modern technology, they’re hoping to capitalize on an estimated $13.3 billion find.

Smart investors are watching this once in a lifetime discovery like hawks.

GMP research says this little company could realize $550 per ounce profit…

And the mine is so exciting, Barrick Gold invested $20 million to develop it.

The company’s stock, according to Cantor Fitzgerald, “is inexpensive by any and all metrics.”

It’s a steal because few people — yet — have heard the extraordinary story of Euro Sun Mining Inc. (TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF).

Based at their mine in Rovina, Romania, Euro Sun has 400 million tons of ore, with billions of dollars’ worth of gold and copper locked inside.

Cantor Fitz thinks they are undervalued by 500% and GMP Research predicts a 671% gain.

With such a huge discovery ready for the taking, this could be the gold story of 2019.

Plus, any small move on the gold market could turbo-charge the company’s growth… from 5x to 10x to even 30x its current market cap.

Here are five reasons investors should not miss out on the biggest gold story of 2019:

#1 Julius Caesar’s $13 Billion Gold Stash Re-Discovered

Euro Sun has secured an asset of colossal value: a Romanian gold mine that was first proven to contain a massive payday one hundred years ago.

The Ancient Romans excavated $16.8 billion in gold from this area of Romania, minting coins that were dispersed across an empire 11 million square miles in size.

The problem? Permits are labor-intensive and sometimes impossible, thanks to EU regulation.

Back when permits were available, Barrick Gold (NYSE:ABX), the World’s most valuable gold miner, got in on the action: the


company pumped in $20 million to develop Rovina.

Now Rovina is owned by Euro Sun… and Euro Sun has done the impossible… it just got the green light from the Romanian government.

The Rovina mine has been classified as a “highly scalable” asset, with an unprecedented growth potential, according to Cantor Fitzgerald.

Mines like Rovina are hard to come by, even though the area is rich in ore.

And Euro Sun TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF) has flown over the biggest hurdle – acquiring the licenses it needs to start developing Rovina’s full potential.

The mining license from the Romanian government was approved in November 2018 – the first license to have been given out in over 15 years.

A resource statement from 2012 offers a view of the potential riches: 400 million tons of ore in three bodies, roughly 7.1 million ounces of gold and a billion and a half pounds of copper, or 10.1 million ounces of gold equivalent.

In February 2019, Euro Sun completed its Preliminary Economic Assessment (PEA) for Rovina. The mine looks ready to produce an average gold equivalent of 139,000 ounces and 1.6 million over twelve years.

All told, the company is looking at $9.3 billion in gold and $4 billion in copper… a total haul of $13.3 billion.

Better yet, the mine is perfectly situated near a Romanian mining town, with a population of 13,000.

Road and rail transportation is close at hand, ready to carry the mine’s product to market.

Based on the company’s current market cap, the upside potential here is insane.

And even just a tiny move in gold will send it even higher.

#2 Small Climbs In Gold Mean Massive Gains For Gold Miners

NOW is the time to buy gold.

Analysts are optimistic that prices are set to climb even high, potentially exceeding $2,000/ounce, due to wavering markets and shaky geopolitical conditions.

Right now, gold stocks are trading for pennies on the dollar, as they have been since January.

But one thing that investors and speculators often forget, is how explosive gold-stock upside is when gold moves higher.

And, when gold goes up, gold companies tend to do very, very well.

Every 1% move in gold can send a small miner up 10% or more… And a 10% move can send a small miner up 100% or more.

Back in 2016, gold prices jumped 26% in 6 months… and gold miner returns were stellar:

Mid-cap miners such as Endeavour Mining Corp gained 196% in 6 months, while its Ontario based competitor IAMGold gained 256% in that same timeframe.

…but some of the real winners were the shareholders of small-cap miners.

Argonault Gold’s share price jumped 298% in 6 months, and its peer Great Panther Mining saw its share price even jump by a whopping 340% in no more than 4 months after it reported a 19% in gold production.

Companies like Euro Sun (TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF) could start selling at a premium…for investors who don’t snatch them up now.

And when gold goes up, little companies like Euro Sun fly.

But that’s not the end of this story. There’s a bigger — nearby — catalyst.

#3 China Just Spent $1.4 Billion On A Small Mine Just Down The Street


With this incredible find, it’s no wonder that analysts are starting to speculate about Euro Sun…

Could the company be snatched up soon, delivering a huge windfall to early investors?

It’s certainly a strong possibility.

Analysts in the mining sector are already hinting that Euro Sun could be acquired.

 China Just Spent $1.4 Billion On A Small Mine Just Down The Street from Euro Sun

And we think China might have a part to play because they just spent $1.4 billion to acquire a mine right down the street from Euro Sun.

China is making a big global investment push, as part of its $900 billion “Belt and Silk Road” initiative.

Chinese investment along the road is surging, covering 68 countries.

China wants to acquire assets along the Silk Road route—gold, silver, copper, you name it—and that route runs right through Romania.

And the Chinese have just paid $1.4 billion to acquire another mining asset…which sits right down the street from Euro Sun…China’s nearby acquisition could also take years to fully license.

And Euro Sun (TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF), on a site with ZERO ancient ruins is even better positioned for a multi-billion dollar payday.

The Rovina mine is fully licensed. It’s poised to become one of the biggest gold and copper mine in Europe.

It’s right next to a major Romanian mining town of Brad, which has already excavated $17 billion in gold in the last 100 years.

In fact, Brad’s coat of arms prominently features a mining cart. There’s ample access to talent, transportation and infrastructure… as well as a nearby sea port.

Soon, this story will hit the shores of America.

#4 “Undervalued by 500%” — Cantor Fitzgerald “671% Gain” — GMP Research

In 2016, GMP declared Euro Sun the“new old kid on the block,” declaring the company had 10 MILLION OUNCES in gold equivalent waiting to be dug up.

And the numbers look even better now than they did two years ago.

“Undervalued by 500%” — Cantor Fitzgerald

At current prices, Euro Sun could realize $550 in profit per ounce… resulting in total revenue of $5.5 billion from Rovina


alone.

It’s no wonder that GMP noted Rovina has “robust economics and upside…If another ounce is never found, Euro Sun already owns a potentially extremely robust project.”

A world class gold vein from Brad Museum of Mining

GMP’s estimate has been upheld by Cantor Fitzgerald, which completed its own estimate in early 2019.

The deposit at Rovina “carries strong economics on a standalone basis.” The only thing holding Euro Sun back is the fact this is happening in a small company… far away from the lights of Wall Street.

But as we already explained, that could change in a flash…once this story gets out.

The management at Euro Sun (TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF) knows what it’s doing. The company is led by CEO and President G. Scott Moore, a business executive with twenty-five years’ experience in the resource sector, and the former EVP of Sulliden Gold and Director of Avion Gold.

Moore and his team have cultivated excellent political conditions in Romania, evidenced by their successful acquisition of a license for the Rovina mine.

And now all they need is the capital to take Rovina to the next level…and turn it into one of the largest gold mines in Europe.

Cantor Fitz thinks they are undervalued by 500% and GMP Research predicts a 671% gain.

#5 Europe’s Second Biggest Gold Mine Could Be Worth 30x More

And it could go much higher…

When gold moves a little, miners like Euro Sun can move A LOT.

And the company has already gotten positive attention.

Barrick, the World’s largest gold miner, once invested $20 million into the Rovina mine. The asset has been developed and has fallen into Euro Sun’s lap. Now all it needs to do is exploit it.

GMP puts Euro Sun’s short-term target at $2.10. That’s a 500% increase from its current price.

And Cantor Fitz goes even further: they reckon Euro Sun is worth $2.70, an increase of 671%.

geological map of gold deposit

DON’T MISS OUT…

$X MARKET CAP MINER SITTING ON

$13.3 BILLION IN “NEW ROMAN” GOLD

This is a company with a phenomenal upside.

It’s got a fully-licensed gold mine in Romania, the only one of its kind, that could be the biggest gold mine in Europe… an asset potentially worth $10.1 billion.

And that’s only if prices stay where they are! If gold edges above $1400/ounce, profits from Rovina could be even higher.

If China comes calling, Euro Sun (TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF) stock could be worth 5x or 6x what it is now…


As it becomes the #1 gold mine in Europe.


And if its billions in profits are one day realized, that 5x could turn into


30x… A company to rival Barrick in size and value.


But the time to fully investigate Euro Sun (TSE: ESM, OTCPK:CPNFF) is now…


By. Charles Kennedy

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George Church and Rejuvenate Bio’s Combination Gene Therapy Paper

Nextbigfuture has been eagerly awaiting the publication of the research paper on the scientific results of the combination gene therapy experiments by George Church and the team at Rejuvenate Bio.

There was a video over one year ago where George Church mentioned being able to double the lifespan of mice. This would be three times better than any single antiaging therapy on mice. Rejuvenate Bio has 60 aging reversal gene therapies. They have been testing aging reversal in dogs in 2018-2020. Human treatments could be available on a general basis by 2025.

[about 8:40 in the video] He says the organ longevity has also been done successfully with entire mice. They have mice that live twice as long. He says this means that if this had a linear effect and worked in humans then humans could live 160 years.

Rejuvenate Bio is currently offering antiaging age reversal treatments to dogs. Successful age reversal for dogs could be $70 billion per year market. This would fund the development of antiaging treatment for humans.

Here are the highlights of the paper on combination gene therapy.

* Combo gene therapy works against multiple aging diseases


* They have shown success reducing age-related obesity, reduced kidney degradation, and improved heart health


* People have multiple chronic age-related diseases when they are old


* They will get FDA approval against specific diseases instead of against overall aging.


* This paper talks about 4 combined gene therapy treatments but Rejuvenate Bio has been testing over 40 gene therapies in combination

Beginning with the obesity model, they tested multiple therapeutic combinations and found that AAV:FGF21 together with either 1 or both of the other 2 gene therapies was able to mitigate the obesity phenotype in the HFD model as well as the aged ND model, although with a slightly diminished (nonsignificant) effect. Proceeding to the type II diabetes model, we observed that all therapeutic combinations that included AAV:FGF21 rescued the HOMA-IR levels in the treated HFD mice. Next, we applied the individual therapies and their combinations to the UUO model and found that all therapies elicited a positive effect on medullary deterioration and αSMA compared with control mice. Finally, the therapies were applied to the AAC heart failure model and corroborated the results from the other 3 models, with the largest effect observed for the combinations of AAV:sTGFβR2 with either AAV:FGF21 or AAV:αKlotho. Collectively, these data show that a single-combination therapeutic treatment consisting of AAV:sTGFβR2 and AAV:FGF21 can successfully treat all 4 age-related diseases at once. This combination had a higher therapeutic effect in both renal and heart failure compared with the individual gene therapies and maintained therapeutic effectiveness similar to the AAV:FGF21 therapy regarding obesity and diabetes, allowing for a better treatment overall for the 4 diseases involved in this study.

They initially thought that the combo AAV gene therapies would provide positive or possibly, additive effects against the 4 tested diseases. Indeed, an increased therapeutic effect was observed for AAV:sTGFβR2 combined with AAV:FGF21 or AAV:αKlotho in the renal and heart failure models. However, they also found an unexpected negative interaction between AAV:FGF21 and AAV:αKlotho. These 2 gene therapies performed worse when combined compared with their individual results for all 4 diseases, especially with regard to renal and heart failure. It will be interesting to investigate the underlying mechanistic interactions that led to this outcome in future studies to better inform their understanding of the responsible signaling networks and help determine suitable gene combinations in future experiments.

Their approach attempts to increase the overall wellbeing of the individual by eliciting a widespread effect, mitigating multiple disease states at once, compared with traditional therapeutics that narrowly perturb a particular single gene/pathway. Importantly, this strategy also presents a more attractive path toward FDA approval by focusing on the treatment of age-related diseases, which have defined quantitative end points, whereas measuring an increase in longevity would require a lengthy (over 20 years) and expensive clinical trial. The safety and health benefits of the expressed genes together with the low-risk profile of AAV-mediated gene delivery yield an approach that may avoid the risk of negative, off-target effects associated with small molecule therapies. While they have used the expression of 3 secreted factors as a proof of concept to avoid issues related to the codelivery of cell-autonomous factors (such as telomerase), they believe that, as AAV capsids are continually engineered to enhance their infectivity, more cell-autonomous genes may be successfully used in combination in order to achieve similar if not improved results. Crucially, they have also demonstrated that individual longevity gene therapies can be easily combined into a single therapeutic mixture. This serves as an alternative to the traditional therapeutic approaches that, when concurrently treating multiple diseases, require multiple interventions with unrelated substances, which in turn, increase the accumulative exposure to negative side effects. A single-dose combination AAV therapy may also help alleviate issues associated with immune response when considering the alternative of multiple independent AAV-delivered therapies. Future studies may build on the combination AAV therapy concept presented here to treat the many diseases of aging and perhaps, also as a means to address the process of aging itself.

Reduced Age Related Obesity

They evaluated if their therapy could mitigate age-related obesity, 18-mo-old aged mice on an ad libitum ND were used. These mice tend to naturally experience increased adiposity and weighed on average 40 g. We injected all 3 constructs individually or in combination into these mice, resulting in a return to a lean body weight of 30 g for mice that received AAV:FGF21 alone or in combination within 100 d postinjection, which was maintained until at least the 150-d mark (Fig. 1E). Interestingly, we witnessed a decrease in weight in all therapy groups that received AAV:αKlotho as well. AAV:αKlotho alone and in combination with AAV:sTGFβR2 was able to achieve up to 15% weight loss in naturally occurring age-related obesity but did not show any weight loss effects in middle-aged mice fed an HFD.

Reduced Kidney Degradation

Kidney failure and renal fibrosis are a major concern regarding the aging population in the United States, with more than 661,000 people either on dialysis or recipients of a kidney transplant.

They injected mice with single and combination gene therapies 1 wk prior to disease induction via UUO, and kidneys were harvested and analyzed for fibrosis and remodeling 1 wk after the UUO procedure.

Surprisingly, the largest mitigation of medullary atrophy was due to the combination AAV:sTGFβR2 and AAV:FGF21, which performed significantly better than AAV:αKlotho at preventing renal medullary atrophy, with only 6.4% atrophy compared with 22.5%.

Improved Heart Health

Heart failure is responsible for 425,000 deaths per year in the United States, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million people

Six-month-old mice were injected with AAV:sTGFβR2, AAV:αKlotho + AAV:sTGFβR2, AAV:FGF21 + AAV:sTGFβR2, or all 3 therapies combined 1 wk prior to measuring baseline echocardiograms (ECHOs) and performing AAC surgeries. Although the baseline ECHO did not reveal any influence of these therapies on normal heart function, the surgical survival rates were 77% for AAV:sTGFbR2-treated mice and 87% for AAV:sTGFbR2 + AAV:αKlotho compared with only 50% for control mice. This result suggests that there may be an increase in stress resistance that merits further investigation in future studies.

Significance


Human and animal longevity is directly bound to their healthspan. While previous studies have provided evidence supporting this connection, therapeutic implementation of this knowledge has been limited. Traditionally, diseases are researched and treated individually, which ignores the interconnectedness of age-related conditions, necessitates multiple treatments with unrelated substances, and increases the accumulative risk of side effects. In this study, we address and overcome this deadlock by creating adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based antiaging gene therapies for simultaneous treatment of several age-related diseases. We demonstrate the modular and extensible nature of combination gene therapy by testing therapeutic AAV cocktails that confront multiple diseases in a single treatment. We observed that 1 treatment comprising 2 AAV gene therapies was efficacious against all 4 diseases.

Abstract


Comorbidity is common as age increases, and currently prescribed treatments often ignore the interconnectedness of the involved age-related diseases. The presence of any one such disease usually increases the risk of having others, and new approaches will be more effective at increasing an individual’s health span by taking this systems-level view into account. In this study, we developed gene therapies based on 3 longevity associated genes (fibroblast growth factor 21 [FGF21], αKlotho, soluble form of mouse transforming growth factor-β receptor 2 [sTGFβR2]) delivered using adeno-associated viruses and explored their ability to mitigate 4 age-related diseases: obesity, type II diabetes, heart failure, and renal failure. Individually and combinatorially, we applied these therapies to disease-specific mouse models and found that this set of diverse pathologies could be effectively treated and in some cases, even reversed with a single dose. We observed a 58% increase in heart function in ascending aortic constriction ensuing heart failure, a 38% reduction in α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression, and a 75% reduction in renal medullary atrophy in mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction and a complete reversal of obesity and diabetes phenotypes in mice fed a constant high-fat diet. Crucially, we discovered that a single formulation combining 2 separate therapies into 1 was able to treat all 4 diseases. These results emphasize the promise of gene therapy for treating diverse age-related ailments and demonstrate the potential of combination gene therapy that may improve health span and longevity by addressing multiple diseases at once.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Science – A single combination gene therapy treats multiple age-related diseases

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Will This Be The First Tech Unicorn Of 2020?

There’s a new kind of transportation.

It’s not electric cars or electric trucks…

It’s not public transportation like buses or trains…

And it’s not Uber or Lyft…

In fact, it’s busy taking market share away from all of those.

You’ve maybe seen them… but you probably haven’t considered how lucrative this $177-billion industry


actually is.

The electric scooter industry is booming, and OjO Electric (TSX.V:OJO) is trying to transform it.

Investors are already going all in on this sector. Bird has shot up 12,800%…Lime is now up 5,700%… and Tier Mobility is up 2,000%.

These seemingly small companies are now getting multi-billion-dollar valuations.

Bird is now worth $2.75 billion…while Lime is sitting on a $2.4 billion valuation…

But the proverbial train has well and truly left the station for investors hoping to get in on those industry giants.

Instead, it’s time to focus on “the next Tesla” – a small scooter company worth only $38 million currently – which could soon rise significantly.

OjO (TSX.V:OJO) ticks every box.


– It’s got a moat of patents.


– It’s solving one of consumers’ biggest needs.


– It’s safe and legal.


– It’s backed by a team of industry veterans.


– And it’s part of a trillion dollar mobility market that investors simply can’t ignore.

$38 MILLION COMPANY WITH AN INCREDIBLE PATENT PORTFOLIO


In the startup industry, a strong patent portfolio is the ultimate war chest that can ensure massive returns for investors, and that’s exactly what OjO has going for it.

Inventions that are patented instantly become investible assets.

Because there is a direct relationship between patent value and market demand, patented inventions tend to attract strong investments that help the startup compete with entrenched incumbents.

Startups with powerful patents are at a distinct advantage because they are protected from undue competition, giving them room to grow organically while also making them attractive M&A targets. That’s why there is a long line of companies that started off with just sweat equity but went on to become multi-billion-dollar unicorns.

Their secret sauce? Strong products backed by strong patent portfolios.

American-Dutch sports and clothing company Head started with $6,000 and a ski built in a garage. Howard Head was savvy enough to get patents to protect his inventions right away and that translated into astounding 6,700,000% growth.

Microsoft Inc. founders Bill Gates and Paul Allen bet that personal computing would one day become huge, despite the prevailing skepticism. The first coup here was when they bought the license for the code for MS-DOS in 1986 for $925,000 and refused to grant IBM an exclusive licensing agreement. It was a huge risk for Microsoft, but one that paid off massively in the end. They spent only $925,000 and grew a staggering 194,000% as soon as the PC revolution caught fire.

Then, of course, there’s Apple Inc. and Steve Jobs, widely considered as one of the greatest inventors of the last century. Job’s name appears as the author of 346 patents in the US registry, including the original Macintosh in 1984 and the iPhone in 2007.

Job’s patent-securing genius has propelled Apple shares 8,700% since the launch of the iPhone and 14,500% since the Mac made its debut.

Now, OjO Electric Corp. (TSX.V:OJO) is seeking to revolutionize the next multi-billion-dollar industry with its own remarkable patent portfolio.

PATENTS AND PERMITS


OjO Electric Corp. has a mission to change the future of micro-mobility for good by providing safe and sustainable first- and last-mile mobility.

The OjO scooter is a patented custom-engineered bike that’s fully-electric and produces zero emissions.

It’s powered by two swappable 48-volt Li-ion batteries that allows it to travel an industry-best 50 miles on full charge at a bike-lane-legal top speed of 20mph.

The OjO scooter also features unique integrated GPS technology that allows for geofencing and automated speed throttling whenever the user exceeds the speed limit for a particular jurisdiction or zone.

OjO’s approach to first- and last-mile mobility is different from its competitors because it emphasizes close collaboration with municipal and local authorities. The company is already in the process of rolling out a grand total of 1,250 scooters, which will include 500 in Austin, 500 in Dallas and 250 in Memphis, Tennessee.

All that is left to get the ball truly rolling is to deploy thousands of scooters to these areas.

SAFE AND ROADWORTHY SCOOTERS


The e-scooter trend is a modern-day phenomenon that transcends the age barrier.

Electric scooters have been rapidly gaining popularity as a cost-effective, convenient and safe mode of transportation and proving that getting from A to point B does not have to be a dull, soporific affair.

Everyone from Gen-Zers to Millennials and even Baby Boomers are now getting on board, especially due to its convenience and accessibility.

What makes the OJO scooters really stand out is the fact that they are one of the only brands that uses Bluetooth speakers to announce audible safety alerts. Additionally, the scooter’s speed will automatically adjust to comply with speed limits in different zones while also providing audible safety alerts informing the rider of speed zones and restrictions. They can make their scooters automatically slow down in school zones or campuses.

While the first influx of scooters created chaos for cities, OJO (TSX.V:OJO) is turning that chaos into organized safety. That’s why cities, municipalities and local authorities may be more interested in dealing with OJO.

A $7 TRILLION TREND

Micro-mobility is an unstoppable and powerful secular trend that is just taking off and seeing explosive growth.


The total mobility market is currently valued at $7 trillion…and growing.

According to projections by industry pundit Goldman Sachs, the ride-hailing sector was valued at $36.4 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach $126.5 billion by 2025 and up to $492 billion by 2030. That represents an impressive 22.1% CAGR over the period.

What’s even more impressive is the fact that the budding e-scooter ride-hailing sector is expected to grow much faster than other forms of ride-hailing such as bikes and cars.

A big reason why this particular service is expected to experience robust growth is due to its sheer versatility. For instance, e-scooters can be readily deployed as a more practical and convenient last-mile delivery tool for companies like Amazon than, say, drones. Good case in point is a leading food delivery company already uses OjO (TSX.V:OJO) scooters for food delivery in a pilot program.

Further, tech-based mobility solutions and city infrastructure improvements such as public transit and added bike lanes are emerging and helping improve commuting times and also lower congestion and GHG emissions.

All these trends are helping open up the e-scooter micro-mobility sector.

Tesla-esque CEO OjO (TSX.V:OJO) is a design-first company that was founded by a group of successful inventors, designers and consumer goods entrepreneurs.

Just like Musk, the CEO is a rare quintessential combination of wit, intelligence, fortitude, sarcasm and


judiciousness. In a nutshell, a brilliant visionary.

While Elon is shooting for the stars with his electric cars and dreams of colonizing Mars… this guy is looking at the smallest travel segment with the same laser-focus on clean-energy and industry-defining premium products.

HOW THEY MAKE MONEY

This company boasts an attractive and profitable business model with superior economics compared to its rivals.

The OjO scooter costs $1,240 vs. $551 average by competitors. While it costs more, the Ojo scooter is expected to last years instead of months and therefore, recoup and generate positive cash returns.

A big reason why OjO’s scooters have much better economics is that they are designed to be used for ride-sharing. These scooters are built with heavy-gauge aluminum under chassis for optimal strength, cushioned seat for comfort and powered by a robust rear hub motor capable of climbing an 18% grade.

They can also do 40-50 miles on a single charge allowing them to go well beyond the usual limits of their less robust brethren. Indeed, while the average kick scooter ride is about 0.6 miles, OjO scooters average close to 2 miles and they even have rides in cities that are 10-15 miles long, comparable to the range by Uber and Lyft cars.

In other words, OjO is already competing in Uber and Lyft’s back yard.

It’s early innings for OjO (TSX.V:OJO), yet all the revenue and profit metrics are already tracking positive.

2019 Trends in Key Rideshare Metrics

You can expect a big revenue ramp by the company as well.

OjO (TSX.V:OJO) has already deployed 250 scooters and expects to hit 2,500 by year-end and 10,000-15,000 by the end of 2020.

Planned scooter deployments and revenue run-rate projections

But that will only be the beginning.

After that, OJO expects the project will get much bigger once they start launching in the lucrative European market.

This company is where Bird and Lime were two years ago (they both launched in 2017). Remember, it took them a matter of months to reach unicorn status (i.e., achieve valuations of a billion dollars or more and little more than a year to double that).

This could be history repeating itself right in front of our eyes.

Rich pickings for early-in investors

Bird, Lime and OjO’s own experience has proved just how quickly the e-scooter business can ramp.Things happen so fast it’s like a Lamborghini… 0-60mph in less than three seconds.

This is the lowest-hanging fruit in the micro-mobility industry right now, a rare opportunity to get in early.

Yet those off-the-charts number might only be enjoyed by investors who waste little time buying OjO (TSX.V:OJO) shares.

By. Charles Kennedy

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